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, 277 (24), 21505-13

The Role of Zinc Ions in Reverse Transport Mediated by Monoamine Transporters

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The Role of Zinc Ions in Reverse Transport Mediated by Monoamine Transporters

Petra Scholze et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains an endogenous high affinity Zn2+ binding site with three coordinating residues on its extracellular face (His193, His375, and Glu396). Upon binding to this site, Zn2+ causes inhibition of [3H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([3H]MPP+) uptake. We investigated the effect of Zn2+ on outward transport by superfusing hDAT-expressing HEK-293 cells preloaded with [3H]MPP+. Although Zn2+ inhibited uptake, Zn2+ facilitated [3H]MPP+ release induced by amphetamine, MPP+, or K+-induced depolarization specifically at hDAT but not at the human serotonin and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). Mutation of the Zn2+ coordinating residue His(193) to Lys (the corresponding residue in hNET) eliminated the effect of Zn2+ on efflux. Conversely, the reciprocal mutation (K189H) conferred Zn2+ sensitivity to hNET. The intracellular [3H]MPP+ concentration was varied to generate saturation isotherms; these showed that Zn2+ increased V(max) for efflux (rather than K(M-Efflux-intracellular)). Thus, blockage of inward transport by Zn2+ is not due to a simple inhibition of the transporter turnover rate. The observations provide evidence against the model of facilitated exchange-diffusion and support the concept that inward and outward transport represent discrete operational modes of the transporter. In addition, they indicate a physiological role of Zn2+, because Zn2+ also facilitated transport reversal of DAT in rat striatal slices.

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