Counterregulation of chromatin deacetylation and histone deacetylase occupancy at the integrated promoter of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by the HIV-1 repressor YY1 and HIV-1 activator Tat

Mol Cell Biol. 2002 May;22(9):2965-73. doi: 10.1128/MCB.22.9.2965-2973.2002.


Repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription may contribute to the establishment or maintenance of proviral quiescence in infected CD4(+) cells. The host factors YY1 and LSF cooperatively recruit histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and inhibit transcription. We demonstrate here regulation of occupancy of HDAC1 at a positioned nucleosome (nuc 1) near the transcription start site of integrated LTR. We find that expression of YY1 increases occupancy by HDAC1, decreases acetylation at nuc 1, and downregulates LTR expression. HDAC1 recruitment and histone hypoacetylation were also seen when Tat activation was inhibited by the overexpression of YY1. A YY1 mutant without an HDAC1 interaction domain and incompetent to inhibit LTR activation fails to recruit HDAC1 to LTR or decrease nuc 1 acetylation. Further, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of LSF (dnLSF), which inhibits LSF occupancy and LTR repression, results in acetylation and decreased HDAC1 occupancy at nuc 1. Conversely, exposure of cells to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A or activation of LTR expression by HIV-1 Tat results in the displacement of HDAC1 from nuc 1, in association with increased acetylation of histone H4. Recruitment of HDAC1 to the LTR nuc 1 can counteract Tat activation and repress LTR expression. Significantly, when repression is overcome, LTR activation is associated with decreased HDAC1 occupancy. Since the persistence of integrated HIV-1 genomes despite potent suppression of viral replication is a major obstacle for current antiretroviral therapy, strategies to selectively disrupt the quiescence of chromosomal provirus may play a role in the future treatment of AIDS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Blotting, Western
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Products, tat / metabolism*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism*
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transfection
  • YY1 Transcription Factor
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • Chromatin
  • Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors
  • Gene Products, tat
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Histones
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transcription Factors
  • YY1 Transcription Factor
  • YY1 protein, human
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Histone Deacetylases