Post-prandial glucose excursions following four methods of bolus insulin administration in subjects with type 1 diabetes

Diabet Med. 2002 Apr;19(4):317-21. doi: 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2002.00685.x.


Aims: To determine if one method of short-acting insulin bolus administration is superior to other methods in managing a meal high in carbohydrates, calories and fat.

Methods: Nine subjects receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using insulin lispro (Humalog) agreed to consume the same meal high in carbohydrates, calories and fat on four occasions 1 week apart. They received the same dose of bolus insulin on each of the four occasions randomly assigned and beginning 10 min prior to the meal as either a single bolus, two separate boluses of one-half the same total dose (the second after 90 min), the entire bolus given as a square-wave (over 2 h) or a dual-wave (70% as a bolus and 30% as a square-wave over 2 h). Blood glucose levels were measured at -60 and -30 min and at zero time, and then every half-hour for 6 h using the Hemacue in the out-patient clinic.

Results: Changes in blood glucose values from fasting were the lowest after 90 and 120 min (P < 0.01) when the dual wave was administered. When the dual or square-wave methods of insulin administration were used, subjects had significantly lower glucose levels after 4 h in comparison with when the single or double boluses were used (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: We conclude that the dual wave provided the most effective method of insulin administration for this meal. The dual- and square-wave therapies resulted in lower glucose levels 4 h after the meal in comparison with the single and double-bolus treatments.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Lispro
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period*
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Lispro