The number of frail, older residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) will increase dramatically over the next 30 years. Improving the quality of health care provided in LTCFs is an important national and international priority. Improving the prevention and management of infections in LTCFs is a critical component of efforts to improve quality of care and poses unique challenges. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions of participants in an invitational conference to propose a research agenda for prevention and management of infections in LTCFs. The conference was held in March 2001 in Atlanta, Georgia. The discussants identified key research questions to better understand general issues involving the overall burden of infections in LTCFs, prevention and control interventions, and antimicrobial use and resistance. The participants also discussed research questions involving specific infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, and soft tissue infections. Recommendations for research were discussed and are presented in summary form in this report. Improving the prevention and management of infections in LTCF residents should be a priority if quality of care in these facilities is to be improved. Many unanswered questions remain in this field, and the research agenda outlined in this report will require resources and focus. The benefit of such efforts to LTCF residents and their caregivers is likely to be substantial.