Intravascular plug formation induced by poly-APS is the principal mechanism of the toxin's lethality in rats/rat tissues

Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2002;7(1):106-8.


Toxic water soluble polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts isolated from the sponge Raniera sarai strongly inhibited AChE in vitro. In vivo, experimental animals died due to plugs formed in microcirculation. The mechanism of this plug formation is unknown. In vitro, the toxin did not affect the coagulation rate, but the rate of platelet aggregation was accelerated in a dose-dependent manner. The hemolytic activity of poly-APS was diminished by the addition of serum proteins in a dose-dependent manner. These results support the conclusion that non-specific binding to proteins is the underlying mechanism of the lethality of poly APS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Proteins / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electrocardiography
  • Erythrocyte Aggregation / chemically induced*
  • Erythrocyte Aggregation / pathology*
  • Platelet Aggregation / drug effects*
  • Polymers / toxicity*
  • Protein Binding / drug effects
  • Pyridinium Compounds / toxicity*
  • Rats


  • Blood Proteins
  • Polymers
  • Pyridinium Compounds
  • poly-APS