Adult rats of both sexes were either gonadectomized or hypophysectomized and gonadectomized. Three to eight weeks later they were treated for 14 consecutive days with oil or with 75 or 200 mug testosterone propionate (TP) per 100 g body weight. The animals were killed and for each sex the gonadectomized animals were compared with the hypophysectomized-gonadectomized animals as far as their NADPH- and NADH-dependent 3alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenases (3alpha-HSD) in renal microsomes, transcortin levels in serum and five organ weights relative to total body weight were concerned. For two of the latter, i.e. the relative kidney and prostatic weights, no significant differences were found. Transcortin levels, relative adrenal weights and renal NADPH-dependent 3alpha-HSD activities were higher in oil-treated gonadectomized animals than in oil-treated hypophysectomized-gonadectomized animals. The opposite was found for the relative weights of uterus and seminal vesicles and renal NADH-dependent 3alpha-HSD activities. These differences between gonadectomized and hypophysectomized-gonadectomized animals disappeared after TP treatment as far as transcortin levels were concerned but remained for the five other parameters. After gonadectomy sexual differences subsisted for all parameters studied. But whereas intact male rats had higher NADH-dependent 3alpha-HSD activities than female rats the opposite was found after gonadectomy. After gonadectomy plus hypophysectomy the between sex differences disappeared as far as transcortin levels were concerned but remained in the other parameters studied.