Deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme (gene, AGL) causes glycogen storage disease type III (GSD-III), an autosomal recessive disease affecting glycogen metabolism. Most GSD-III patients have AGL deficiency in both the liver and muscle (type IIIa), but some have it in the liver but not muscle (type IIIb). Cloning of human AGL cDNAs and determination of the genomic structure and mRNA isoforms of AGL have allowed for the study of GSD-III at the molecular level. In turn, the resulting information has greatly facilitated our understanding of the molecular basis of this storage disease with remarkable clinical and enzymatic variability. In this review, we summarize all 31 GSD-III mutations in the literature and discuss their clinical and laboratory implications. Most of the mutations are nonsense mutations caused by a nucleotide substitution or small insertion or deletion; only one is caused by a missense amino acid change. Some important genotype-phenotype correlation have emerged, in particular, that exon 3 mutations (17delAG and Q6X) are specifically associated with GSD-IIIb. Three other mutations have appeared to have some phenotype correlation. Specifically, the splice mutation IVS32-12A>G was found in GSD-III patients having mild clinical symptoms, while the mutations 3965delT and 4529insA are associated with a severe phenotype and early onset of clinical manifestations. A molecular diagnostic scheme has been proposed to diagnose GSD-III noninvasively. The characterization of AGL mutations in GSD-III patients has also helped the structure-function analysis of this bifunctional enzyme important for glycogen metabolism.