This study evaluated the influence of neighborhoods and socioeconomic disadvantage on behavioral problems rated by parents and teachers in a nationally representative sample of children ages 4 to 11 years living in Canada. Between-neighborhood variation accounted for 7.6% and 6.6% of parent and teacher ratings, respectively. About 25.0% of this neighborhood variation could be explained by socioeconomic variables evenly divided between neighborhood and family-level measures. Family socioeconomic status, lone-parent family status, and percentage of lone parents in neighborhoods were strong, reliable predictors of behavioral problems. Ratings were contextualized: Fewer behavioral problems were assessed in children from well-off families living in disadvantaged neighborhoods, whereas more problems were assessed in children from poor families living in advantaged neighborhoods.