The mortality and morbidity after hip and knee arthroplasty were reviewed retrospectively during a 3-year period in 14 patients who had chronic renal failure and who were receiving hemodialysis. The patients had a primary total hip or knee replacement, or a revision arthroplasty or resection arthroplasty. Four of the patients (29%) died in the hospital during the postoperative period. One of the seven patients (14%) having a primary joint replacement died, whereas three of the seven patients (86%) having a revision or resection died. Every patient had multiple medical comorbidities, and every patient had a complication. The results indicate that arthroplasty procedures, especially revisions and resections, in this patient population are associated with a high rate of complications and death, and that in-depth informed consent should be provided for all patients contemplating these procedures. Meticulous treatment of medical comorbidities is mandatory. Finally, data in the literature and in the current report question whether joint arthroplasty procedures should be done in patients with end-stage renal disease who are receiving hemodialysis.