Susceptibility of the H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine, famotidine and nizatidine, to metabolism by the gastrointestinal microflora

Int J Pharm. 2002 Apr 26;237(1-2):23-33. doi: 10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00018-2.


The H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine has previously been shown to be a substrate for colonic bacterial metabolism. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro stability of the other H(2)-receptor antagonists, cimetidine, famotidine and nizatidine, to colonic bacteria. One hundred milligrams of each drug were introduced into individual batch culture fermenters (100 ml) consisting of buffer medium inoculated with freshly voided human faeces (10% w/v). Control experiments, equivalent drug quantities in buffer medium without the presence of faeces, were also run in parallel. Samples were removed at set time intervals over a 24 h period and were subsequently analysed by HPLC. A selection of the samples removed from the fermenters was also subjected to analysis by UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Following an initial dissolution phase in the fermentation system, a marked decline in nizatidine concentration was noted over time with virtually no drug remaining after 12 h, thereby suggesting degradation and metabolism of the drug by colonic bacteria. No such decline in concentration was noted for cimetidine or famotidine or for any of the drugs in the control buffer systems. The metabolic reaction pathway for nizatidine was complex, although UV and mass spectrometry analysis indicated that metabolism was initiated via cleavage of an N-oxide bond within the molecule. These results in combination with those obtained from a previous study indicate that of the four commercially available H(2)-receptor antagonists, nizatidine and ranitidine are susceptible to metabolism by colonic bacteria, which in turn has ramifications for drug delivery and absorption.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria, Anaerobic / metabolism*
  • Cimetidine / chemistry
  • Cimetidine / metabolism*
  • Digestive System / metabolism*
  • Digestive System / microbiology*
  • Famotidine / chemistry
  • Famotidine / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists / chemistry
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Nizatidine / chemistry
  • Nizatidine / metabolism*


  • Histamine H2 Antagonists
  • Famotidine
  • Cimetidine
  • Nizatidine