A glucocorticoid-responsive mutant androgen receptor exhibits unique ligand specificity: therapeutic implications for androgen-independent prostate cancer

Endocrinology. 2002 May;143(5):1889-900. doi: 10.1210/endo.143.5.8778.


The cortisol/cortisone-responsive AR (AR(ccr)) has two mutations (L701H and T877A) that were found in the MDA PCa human prostate cancer cell lines established from a castrated patient whose metastatic tumor exhibited androgen-independent growth. Cortisol and cortisone bind to the AR(ccr) with high affinity. In the present study, we characterized the structural determinants for ligand binding to the AR(ccr). Our data revealed that many of the C17, C19, and C21 circulating steroids, at concentrations that are found in vivo, functioned as effective activators of the AR(ccr) but had little or no activity via the wild-type AR or GRalpha. Among the synthetic glucocorticoids tested, dexamethasone activated both GRalpha and AR(ccr), whereas triamcinolone was selective for GRalpha. In MDA PCa 2b cells, growth and prostate-specific antigen production were stimulated by potent AR(ccr) agonists such as cortisol or 9alpha-fluorocortisol but not by triamcinolone (which did not bind to or activate the AR(ccr)). Of the potential antagonists tested, bicalutamide (casodex) and GR antagonist RU38486 showed inhibitory activity. We postulate that corticosteroids provide a growth advantage to prostate cancer cells harboring the promiscuous AR(ccr) in androgen-ablated patients and contribute to their transition to androgen-independence. We predict that triamcinolone, a commonly prescribed glucocorticoid, would be a successful therapeutic agent for men with this form of cancer, perhaps in conjunction with the antagonist casodex. We hypothesize that triamcinolone administration would inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thus suppressing endogenous corticosteroids, which stimulate tumor growth. Triamcinolone, by itself, would not activate the AR(ccr) or promote tumor growth but would provide glucocorticoid activity essential for survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Androgens / physiology*
  • Anilides / pharmacology
  • Binding, Competitive / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Dihydrotestosterone / pharmacology
  • Fludrocortisone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Fludrocortisone / pharmacology
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics
  • Glucocorticoids / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / pharmacology
  • Kinetics
  • Ligands
  • Male
  • Mifepristone / pharmacology
  • Models, Molecular
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Mutation / physiology
  • Nitriles
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Radioligand Assay
  • Receptors, Androgen / drug effects
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics*
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Triamcinolone / pharmacology


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Androgens
  • Anilides
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Ligands
  • Nitriles
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Tosyl Compounds
  • Dihydrotestosterone
  • Triamcinolone
  • Mifepristone
  • bicalutamide
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Fludrocortisone
  • fludrocortisone acetate
  • Hydrocortisone