Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens; three human isoenzymes have been cloned so far. We report here on the purification of all three recombinant isoenzymes to homogeneity from the medium of cultured insect cells, and we demonstrate that they are all homodimers. Limited proteolysis experiments identified two main protease-sensitive regions in the monomers of about 80-85 kDa, corresponding to three fragments A-C (from the N to C terminus), with molecular masses of about 30, 37, and 16 kDa, respectively. Fragment A was found to play no role in LH activity as a recombinant B-C polypeptide constituted a fully active hydroxylase with K(m) values for cosubstrates and the peptide substrate that were identical to those of the full-length enzyme. LH3, but not LH1 and LH2, has also been reported recently (Heikkinen, J., Risteli, M., Wang, C., Latvala, J., Rossi, M., Valtavaara, M., and Myllylä, R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36158-36163) to possess collagen glucosyltransferase activity. We confirm this highly surprising finding here and extend it by demonstrating that LH3 may also possess trace amounts of collagen galactosyltransferase activity. All the glucosyltransferase and galactosyltransferase activity of LH3 was found to reside in fragment A, which played no role in the hydroxylase activity of the polypeptide. This fragment is about 55% identical and 80% similar to the corresponding fragments of LH1 and LH2. However, the levels of the glycosyltransferase activities are so low that they may be of little biological significance. It is thus evident that human tissues must have additional glycosyltransferases that are responsible for most of the collagen glycosylation in vivo.