Differentiation of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae from other H. influenzae strains by a disc method

J Infect Chemother. 2002 Mar;8(1):50-8. doi: 10.1007/s101560200006.

Abstract

We established breakpoints for differentiating ampicillin (ABPC)-susceptible strains from resistant strains among Haemophilus influenzae isolates according to susceptibility to various beta-lactam antibiotics, using a disc method. Susceptibility testing of isolates for 13 beta-lactam agents was followed by analysis of the resistance genes, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the TEM-1 beta-lactamase gene ( bla) and the ftsI gene encoding penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3, which affects beta-lactam minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A total of 228 H. influenzae isolates were classified into 114 beta-lactamase-negative, ABPC-susceptible (BLNAS) strains; 29 beta-lactamase-negative, ABPC-resistant (BLNAR) strains; 53 low-BLNAR strains with a low degree of ABPC resistance; 27 TEM-1-producing strains (BLPAR); and 5 strains with ftsI gene mutations in addition to TEM-1 production (BLPACR) according to the PCR results. To identify resistant strains by disc-method susceptibility testing, the zone of inhibition was measured for ABPC (10 microg/disc), cefaclor (30 microg/disc), cefpodoxime (10 microg/disc), and cefdinir (5 microg/disc) discs. Strains were identified as BLNAS without resistant genes when the diameter was > or =27 mm for the ABPC disc and > or =21 mm for the cefaclor disc. Other strains were identified as BLNAR when the diameter was < or =22 mm for the cefpodoxime disc and < or =17 mm for the cefdinir disc. Remaining strains were identified as low-BLNAR. These criteria differentiated resistance types with high accuracy. A discrepancy was noted between genetic results and disc-testing breakpoints for differentiating resistant from susceptible H. influenzae. A disc-testing breakpoint for cefditoren (5 microg/disc) was proposed, with the susceptibility statistically defined as a diameter of > or =24 mm, which corresponds to the breakpoint (1 microg/ml) of the microdilution method recommended by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ampicillin Resistance
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects*
  • Haemophilus influenzae / enzymology
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods*
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*
  • beta-Lactams

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • beta-Lactams
  • beta-Lactamases