Chronic neutropenia with autoimmune diseases is associated mainly with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as Felty's syndrome or large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, and with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent advances have allowed better understanding regarding the mechanism of neutropenia and improved options for treatment. Target antigens for antineutrophil antibodies have been identified for both Felty's syndrome and for SLE. The role of soluble Fas-ligand (FasL) in inducing apoptosis of neutrophils has been clarified for LGL leukemia and increased neutrophil apoptosis has been described in neutropenic patients with SLE. The role of immune complexes in affecting neutrophil traffic and function continues to be studied. Treatments of neutropenia have included methotrexate, cyclosporine A, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The efficacy of both GM- and G-CSF in reversing neutropenia and decreasing the risk of infections in Felty's syndrome and SLE has been well documented. Of concern, however, have been flares of symptoms or development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis in some patients following the use of these cytokines. Recent results suggest that in these patients G-CSF should be administered at the lowest dose effective at elevating the neutrophil count above 1,000/microL.