Purpose: To investigate whether peripheral balloon angioplasty with and without stent implantation independently causes an inflammatory vascular response measured by serum acute-phase reactants.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study enrolled 388 consecutive patients (218 men; median age 70 years, interquartile range 59-76) with peripheral artery disease undergoing balloon angioplasty (n = 187), stent implantation (n = 140), and diagnostic angiography (control group, n = 61). C-reactive protein (CRP) measured by standard and high-sensitivity assays, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, and white blood cell (WBC) count were obtained at baseline and at 8, 24, and 48 hours postintervention. Polynomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent association of acute-phase reactants and the interventional group.
Results: CRP levels measured by both standard and the high-sensitivity assays significantly increased after balloon angioplasty (standard CRP, p = 0.02; high-sensitivity CRP, p = 0.02) and stent implantation (standard CRP, p = 0.004; high-sensitivity CRP, p = 0.008) compared to the control group adjusting for age, sex, duration of fluoroscopy, volume of contrast, and periprocedural complications. SAA values differed only between the stent group and controls (p = 0.05). Fibrinogen and WBCs were not different among the 3 interventional groups.
Conclusions: Balloon injury and stent implantation induce a vascular inflammatory response at the dilated vessel segment measurable by serum acute-phase parameters. The standard CRP assay is adequate to quantify acute-phase response in these patients.