Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. Mutations have been demonstrated in more than 80% of females with typical features of Rett syndrome. We identified mutations in the MECP2 gene and documented the clinical manifestations in 65 Rett syndrome patients to characterize the genotype-phenotype spectrum. Bidirectional sequencing of the entire MECP2 coding region was performed. We diagnosed 65 patients with MECP2 mutations. Of these, 15 mutations had been reported previously and 13 are novel. Two patients have multiple deletions within the MECP2 gene. Eight common mutations were found in 43 of 65 patients (66.15%). The majority of patients with identified mutations have the classic Rett phenotype, and several had atypical phenotypes. MECP2 analysis identified mutations in almost all cases of typical Rett syndrome, as well as in some with atypical phenotypes. Eleven (20.4%) of the 54 patients with defined mutations and in whom phenotypic data were obtained did not develop acquired microcephaly. Hence, microcephaly at birth or absence of acquired microcephaly does not obviate the need for MECP2 analysis. We have initiated cascade testing starting with PCR analysis for common mutations followed by sequencing, when necessary. Analysis of common mutations before sequencing the entire gene is anticipated to be the most efficacious strategy to identify Rett syndrome gene mutations.