Comparison of orthologous and paralogous DNA flanking the wheat high molecular weight glutenin genes: sequence conservation and divergence, transposon distribution, and matrix-attachment regions

Genome. 2002 Apr;45(2):367-80. doi: 10.1139/g01-137.


Extended flanking DNA sequences were characterized for five members of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin gene family to understand more of the structure, control, and evolution of these genes. Analysis revealed more sequence conservation among orthologous regions than between paralogous regions, with differences mainly owing to transposition events involving putative retrotransposons and several miniature inverted transposable elements (MITEs). Both gyspy-like long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposon sequences are represented in the flanking DNAs. One of the MITEs is a novel class, but another MITE is related to the maize Stowaway family and is widely represented in Triticeae express sequence tags (ESTs). Flanking DNA of the longest sequence, a 20 425-bp fragment including and surrounding the HMW-glutenin Bx7 gene, showed additional cereal gene-like sequences both immediately 5' and 3' to the HMW-glutenin coding region. The transcriptional activities of sequences related to these flanking putative genes and the retrotransposon-related regions were indicated by matches to wheat and other Triticeae ESTs. Predictive analysis of matrix-attachment regions (MARs) of the HMW glutenin and several alpha-, gamma-, and omega-gliadin flanking DNAs indicate potential MARs immediately flanking each of the genes. Matrix binding activity in the predicted regions was confirmed for two of the HMW-glutenin genes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • 3' Flanking Region / genetics
  • 5' Flanking Region / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA Transposable Elements / genetics*
  • DNA, Plant / genetics*
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • Genes, Plant
  • Glutens / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glutens / chemistry
  • Glutens / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Weight
  • Nuclear Matrix / metabolism*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Triticum / genetics*


  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • DNA, Plant
  • Glutens
  • glutenin