RBP-J is a key mediator of Notch signaling that regulates cell fate determination in various lineages. To investigate the function of Notch-RBP-J in mature B cell differentiation, we generated mice that selectively lacked B cell RBP-J expression using conditional mutagenesis. Absence of RBP-J led to the loss of marginal zone B (MZB) cells with a concomitant increase in follicular B cells; in contrast, B1 cells in the peritoneal cavity were unaffected. Lack of RBP-J caused no defects in B cells maintenance, survival, plasma cell differentiation or activation. It is therefore likely that Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the lineage commitment of mature B cells into follicular versus MZB cells. In addition, in mice with RBP-J-deficient B cells, had no obvious changes in immunoglobulin production in response to Ficoll, lipopolysaccharide or chicken gammaglobulin. In contrast, these mice exhibited increased mortality rates after blood-borne bacterial infection, which indicates that MZB cells play pivotal roles in the clearance of these bacteria.