There has been a long history of innovation and development of tools for gene discovery and genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster. This includes methods to induce mutations and to screen for those mutations that disrupt specific processes, methods to map mutations genetically and physically, and methods to clone and characterize genes at the molecular level. Modern genetics also requires techniques to do the reverse to disrupt the functions of specific genes, the sequences of which are already known. This is the process referred to as reverse genetics. During recent years, some valuable new methods for conducting reverse genetics in Drosophila have been developed.