The induction of systemic and mucosal immunity to protein vaccines delivered through skin sites exposed to UVB

Vaccine. 2002 May 15;20(16):2116-30. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00060-9.


It has been reported that common mucosal immunity can be efficiently induced in mice following immunization through the skin with vaccine formulations containing either the active form of vitamin D, or chemical agents capable of locally enhancing cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. Herein, we report that exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) can be employed as a means to alter systemic humoral immune responses and to promote the induction of mucosal immunity to protein antigens delivered into UVB-exposed skin sites. Our data indicates that the skin, as a vaccination site, can be manipulated to allow efficient induction of common mucosal and systemic immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Female
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunization
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / classification
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Skin / immunology*
  • Skin / radiation effects*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Vaccines