Control of adaptive immune responses by Toll-like receptors

Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Jun;14(3):380-3. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(02)00343-6.


Recently, there has been considerable interest in how adaptive immune responses are controlled by the innate immune system. In particular, researchers have focused on how the differentiation of CD4 T cells is directed upon priming by dendritic cells. The identification of the Toll-like receptors as a family of pattern-recognition receptors involved in controlling dendritic cell activation has focused attention on these receptors as possible regulators of adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have suggested that Toll-like receptors may only control the induction of Th1 responses and that a separate system of recognition regulates Th2 responses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Infections / immunology*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors