Harman's free radical theory of aging and our electron-microscopic finding of an age-related mitochondrial degeneration in the somatic tissues of the insect Drosophila melanogaster as well as in the fixed postmitotic Leydig and Sertoli cells of the mouse testis led us to propose a mitochondrial theory of aging, according to which metazoan senescence may be linked to oxygen stress-injury to the genome and membranes of the mitochondria of somatic differentiated cells. These concepts attract a great deal of attention, since, according to recent work, the mitochondrial damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and concomitant decline in ATP synthesis seem to play a key role not only in aging, but also in the fundamental cellular process of apoptosis. Although diet supplementation with antioxidants has not been able to increase consistently the species-characteristic maximum life span, it results in significant extension of the mean life span of laboratory animals. Moreover, diets containing high levels of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E seem able to reduce the risk of suffering age-related immune dysfunctions and arteriosclerosis. Presently, the focus of age-related antioxidant research is on compounds, such as deprenyl, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, and the glutathione-precursors thioproline and N-acetylcysteine, which may be able to neutralize the ROS at their sites of production in the mitochondria. Diet supplementation with these antioxidants may protect the mitochondria against respiration-linked oxygen stress, with preservation of the genomic and structural integrity of these energy-producing organelles and concomitant increase in functional life span.