Animal model pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: a critical review

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002 Apr;19(4):261-8. doi: 10.1016/s0924-8579(02)00022-5.


Animals have been extensively used in the evaluation of antimicrobials. The value of animals in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of antimicrobials is critically reviewed. Animal studies have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target determining efficacy can vary for different classes of antimicrobials. However, the magnitude of the target required for bacteriological efficacy is relatively similar for various sites of infection, various pathogens and various drugs within the same class, provided free drug levels are used.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Models, Animal


  • Anti-Infective Agents