The APC gene in colorectal cancer

Eur J Cancer. 2002 May;38(7):867-71. doi: 10.1016/s0959-8049(02)00040-0.


Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are not only responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), but also play a rate-limiting role in the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers. Colorectal tumours are known to arise through a gradual series of histological changes, the so-called 'adenoma-carcinoma' sequence, each accompanied by a genetic alteration in a specific oncogene or tumour suppressor gene. Loss of APC function triggers this chain of molecular and histological changes. In general, an intestinal cell needs to comply with two essential requirements to develop into a cancer: it must acquire selective advantage to allow for the initial clonal expansion, and genetic instability to allow for multiple hits at other genes responsible for tumour progression and malignant transformation. Inactivation of APC seems to fulfill both requirements. In this short review, I will discuss the role played by APC in providing, when mutated, selective advantage, through constitutional activation of the Wnt signal transduction pathway, and chromosomal instability to the nascent intestinal tumor cell.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Genes, APC / physiology*
  • Homeostasis / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mutation / genetics