Chromosomal changes in betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship to clinical parameters

Oral Oncol. 2002 Apr;38(3):266-73. doi: 10.1016/s1368-8375(01)00054-9.


To investigate the chromosomal imbalances that occur in oral carcinoma associated primarily with betel use and their clinical implications, we performed chromosomal analysis using comparative genomic hybridization on 47 patients with this disease. The most common gains of chromosome arms were 8q, 9q and 11q, and the most frequent losses were of chromosomal arms 3p and 4q. The clinical parameters significantly associated with the numbers of chromosomal imbalances per tumor were the age of the patients and nodal metastasis. The preliminary findings of a lower incidence of loss of 4q and gain of 8q in betel-associated tumors compared to non-betel-associated tumors might provide insight into the carcinogenic effect of betel. Deletion of 3p and the gain of 11q alterations were more prevalent in carcinomas with lymph node metastasis than in node-negative tumors, indicating possible loci for metastasis suppressor or metastasis enhancing genes, respectively. Losses of 3p and 4q and gain of 9q were associated with poor outcome for the patients. These data demonstrated that the frequent aberrations in 4q and 9q sites can be used as novel prognostic predictors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Areca* / chemistry
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Chromosome Aberrations / chemically induced*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Smoking


  • Genetic Markers