Dyslipidemias are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The causes vary with the stage of kidney disease, the degree of proteinuria, and the modality of end-stage renal disease treatment. Dyslipidemias have been associated with kidney disease progression, and a number of small, randomized, controlled trials of lipid-lowering agents have been conducted. Unfortunately, the results of these trials, although encouraging, have been inconclusive because of the small numbers of patients enrolled. Dyslipidemias may also contribute to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. This is most likely for patients with chronic renal insufficiency and for kidney transplant recipients. Less certain is the role of dyslipidemias in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease among dialysis patients.