Objectives: To evaluate change in pressure ulcer prevalence in long-term nursing home residents since the implementation of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA '87).
Design: Cross-sectional comparison of two time periods.
Setting: Ninety-two nursing homes scheduled for a quality-of-care survey randomly selected from 22 representative states.
Participants: Four thousand six hundred seventy-nine residents who had resided in the facility for at least 100 days were evaluated: 2,336 during 1992-1994 and 2,343 during 1997-1998.
Measurements: Trained registered nurses collected data on pressure ulcer prevalence, stage, and risk factors from medical record review during on-site evaluations. Risk-adjusted differences were estimated using logistic regression.
Results: Unadjusted prevalence rates for all stages of pressure ulcers (8.52% vs 8.54%, P =.983) and those rated stage 2 or greater (5.31% vs 5.63%, P =.624) did not differ between the two time periods. After adjustment for urinary incontinence, immobility, poor nutrition, and history of previous pressure ulcers, the relative odds of having a pressure ulcer in 1992/4 versus 1997/8 was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-1.34) for all stages and 1.21 (95% CI = 0.92-1.60) for stages 2 and greater.
Conclusions: No change in pressure ulcer prevalence was demonstrated since implementation of OBRA '87 in this nationally derived sample of long-term nursing home residents.