This report examines whether long-term care facilities should implement policies and procedures to support advance care planning by proxy for residents who lack decision-making capacity. The report focuses on advance care planning in the Department of Veterans Affairs. After reviewing clinical, legal, and ethical perspectives, the authors conclude that advance proxy planning is ethically sound and can improve patient care. However, because experience with advance proxy planning is still fairly limited, the authors do not recommend that a particular standardized approach be mandated at the national level. Instead, local facilities are advised to develop their own policies and then evaluate their effect. The report contains specific recommendations for the advance proxy planning process.