An update on the referral pattern of patients with end-stage renal disease

Kidney Int Suppl. 2002 May;(80):27-34. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.61.s80.6.x.


This article first describes the epidemiology and reasons of late referal to the nephrologist of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Depending on the definition, between 25 and 50% of worldwide ESRD patients are referred very late. Second, the relation of late referral to the quality of pre-ESRD care, its impact on the selection of dialysis modality, on the time of start of dialysis and on the use of an adequate vascular access, are discussed. Finally, the economic aspects of late referral are described and ways to improve the referral pattern are proposed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / economics
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Quality of Health Care
  • Referral and Consultation / economics
  • Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Time Factors