Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from aged blood stains: quantitative evaluation of the "suitability for purpose" of four filter papers as archival media

Anal Chem. 2002 Apr 15;74(8):1863-9. doi: 10.1021/ac015715e.


In collaboration with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology's Department of Defense DNA Registry, the National Institute of Standards and Technology recently evaluated the performance of a short tandem repeat multiplex with dried whole blood stains on four different commercially available identification card matrixes. DNA from 70 stains that had been stored for 19 months at ambient temperature was extracted or directly amplified and then processed using routine methods. All four storage media provided fully typeable (qualitatively identical) samples. After standardization, the average among-locus fluorescence intensity (electropherographic peak height or area) provided a suitable metric for quantitative analysis of the relative amounts of amplifiable DNA in an archived sample. The amounts of DNA in Chelex extracts from stains on two untreated high-purity cotton linter pulp papers and a paper treated with a DNA-binding coating were essentially identical. Average intensities for the aqueous extracts from a paper treated with a DNA-releasing coating were somewhat lower but also somewhat less variable than for the Chelex extracts. Average intensities of directly amplified punches of the DNA-binding paper were much larger but somewhat more variable than the Chelex extracts. Approximately 25% of the observed variation among the intensity measurements is shared among the four media and thus can be attributed to intrinsic variation in white blood count among the donors. All of the evaluated media adequately "bank" forensically useful DNA in well-dried whole blood stains for at least 19 months at ambient temperature.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Stains*
  • DNA / blood*
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA / genetics
  • Humans
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • Paper / standards*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*


  • DNA