Short wavelength automated perimetry, frequency doubling technology perimetry, and pattern electroretinography for prediction of progressive glaucomatous standard visual field defects

Ophthalmology. 2002 May;109(5):1009-17. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(02)01015-1.


Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a test battery of short wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT), and pattern electroretinography (PERG) in predicting progressive glaucomatous visual field defects on standard automated perimetry (SAP).

Study design: A prospective, longitudinal, observational case series.

Participants: One hundred and fifty-two patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with bilateral glaucomatous visual field defects on SAP were followed at 6-month intervals over a period of 30 months.

Main outcome measures: Short wavelength automated perimetry, FDT, and PERG results were compared between POAG eyes with and without progressive field loss on SAP. These two groups were used to evaluate whether PERG, SWAP, and/or FDT is predictive of future progression of field loss on SAP.

Results: Using the criteria of progressive field loss on SAP defined by the Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study, 54 eyes (study group) of 54 POAG patients showed progressive defects, whereas 84 eyes (control group) of 84 POAG patients showed no progression. Only 11.1% (6 of 54) of the eyes with a progression of field loss on SAP showed no increase of deficits on the three functional tests before progression. Short wavelength automated perimetry detected early progressive defects on SAP in 43 of the 54 eyes (79.6%). Of these 54 POAG eyes, FDT showed progressive deficits in 40 eyes (74.1%), whereas PERG amplitude P1N2 showed progressive deficits in 35 eyes (64.8%) before progression of field loss on SAP. A test battery consisting of SWAP and PERG P1N2-amplitude was able to detect 88.9% of eyes before a prediction of field loss on SAP. When comparing the results of the two functional tests, SWAP and FDT in the 84 eyes without progression of field loss on SAP between baseline and at 30 months, SWAP and FDT showed progressive deficits in 34.5% and 35.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: All three tests (SWAP, FDT, and PERG) have been successful in detecting glaucoma eyes with a future progression of standard visual field defects. A test battery of SWAP and PERG P1N2-amplitude improved the power to predict these progressive defects on SAP. It remains to be seen whether the long-term follow-up in POAG eyes will improve the false-positive rate of SWAP and FDT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Electroretinography / methods*
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / diagnosis*
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Optic Disk / pathology
  • Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Vision Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Vision Disorders / physiopathology
  • Visual Acuity
  • Visual Field Tests / methods*
  • Visual Fields*