Flow cytometers make homogeneous real-time measurements of ligand-receptor interactions and, simultaneously, the physiological responses of cells. Their multiparameter capabilities are also useful in resolving multicomponent assemblies or in developing multiplexed assays. Recent advances suggest that these approaches can be extended in several important ways. Sample delivery in the millisecond time domain is applicable to the analysis of complex binding kinetics and reaction mechanisms. The homogeneous discrimination of free components and particle-based assemblies can be extended into the micromolar concentration range. Measurements can be made of molecular assemblies among proteins, DNA, RNA, lipids, and carbohydrates on beads. The topography and assembly of components within cells can be evaluated with resonance energy transfer. Temperature dependence can be evaluated with Peltier temperature control. Many assembly endpoints can be assessed through new tools for high-throughput flow cytometry using plate-based assay formats and small volume samples.