Through screening a human fetal brain cDNA library, a cDNA similar to the mouse Bex1 was isolated. This new gene was named brain expressed X-linked protein 1 (BEX1). Northern blot analysis revealed a 1.0 kb transcript highly expressed in brain, pancreas, testis, and ovary, with lower levels present in heart, placenta, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, prostate, small intestine, colon (no mucus), thyroid, spinal cord, and adrenal gland. No hybridization signal was seen in lung, skeletal muscle, peripheral blood leukocyte, stomach, lymph node, trachea, and bone marrow. The BEX1 gene was localized to chromosome band Xq22 between markers between DXS990 and DXS1059 by screening Stanford radiation hybrid G3 panels. In situ hybridization of mouse testis using BEX1 as a probe detected the signal in the pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids but not in spermatogonia. Furthermore, it was not detected at 6, 9, and 12 days postpartum, was present in low amount on Days 15 and 18 and its expression increased sharply after the initiation of puberty (about 21 days) in mouse testis.