Phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-D), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4-D), and 1,6-hexanediamine (1,6-D) were investigated by observing the germination of young radish seeds and the viability of HeLa cells, respectively. 2,4-D showed the highest, 4,4-D intermediate, and 1,6-D lowest cytotoxicity. However, the phytotoxicity decreased in the order of 4,4-D > 2,4-D > 1,6-D. Contrary to the results previously reported, in the modified Sturm test the activated sludge degraded 2,4-D and 4,4-D as well as 1,6-D without any pre-acclimation. Ochrobacterium antropi was isolated for degradation of 2,4-D and 4,4-D and Pseudomonas citronellolis for 1,6-D degradation. Thielevia sp. was isolated as 2,4-D degrading fungus and Aspergillus sp. as 4,4-D and 1,6-D degrading fungus. The fungi degraded the diamines faster than the bacteria.