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Review
. 2002 Jun;167(6):2397-403.

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound as Noninvasive Therapy for Multilocal Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Study and Review of the Literature

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  • PMID: 11992045
Review

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound as Noninvasive Therapy for Multilocal Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Study and Review of the Literature

Kai Uwe Köhrmann et al. J Urol. .

Abstract

Purpose: Noninvasive tumor ablation can be achieved by extracorporeally induced high intensity focused ultrasound. Clinical high intensity focused ultrasound performed to date for renal tumors have only been experimental in nature. We present specific details on a patient with renal cell carcinoma who underwent high intensity focused ultrasound with curative intent and long-term followup examinations.

Materials and methods: Ultrasound waves were generated by a cylindrical piezoelectric element focused by a paraboloid reflector. High intensity focused ultrasound was applied to 3 tumors in 3 sessions with the patient under general anesthesia or sedation analgesia, followed by magnetic resonance imaging for 6 months.

Results: After treatment magnetic resonance imaging showed necrosis in the 2 tumors in the lower kidney pole within 17 and 48 days, respectively. The necrotic tumor area shrank thereafter within 6 months. The tumor in the upper pole was not affected by treatment due to absorption of the ultrasound energy by the interposed ribs. General anesthesia was required to apply high energy levels of focused ultrasound. Absorption of high intensity focused ultrasound in the tissue induced sharply demarcated thermonecrosis. For 50 years patients have been treated with high intensity focused ultrasound for different indications, focusing on the brain, eyes, prostate, liver and bladder. For the kidney experimental but only few clinical studies indicate sufficient tissue ablation.

Conclusions: In our case contactless noninvasive application of high intensity focused ultrasound to 2 renal carcinomas achieved thermal ablation. When high intensity focused ultrasound energy was coupled correctly, no lesions occurred outside of the target area. Successful high intensity focused ultrasound application depended on optimum energy coupling, a sufficiently high ultrasound energy level and general anesthesia.

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