Purpose: Hereditary prostate cancer accounts for 5% to 10% of all prostate cancer cases. We assessed clinical characteristics and survival in patients with hereditary prostate cancer
Materials and methods: The study comprised 201 patients from 62 Swedish hereditary prostate cancer families and 402 controls with prostate cancer who were matched for age and calendar year at diagnosis, and the hospital where the diagnosis was made. Clinical data were obtained from the National Cancer Registry, Causes of Death Registry and medical records.
Results: Median age at the diagnosis of hereditary prostate cancer was 68 years, which was 6 years less than in patients with prostate cancer in the general population in Sweden. Distributions of tumor grade, symptoms at diagnosis and initial therapy were similar in hereditary prostate cancer cases and controls. More controls were classified with localized disease but it may have been due to methodological problems. Overall and cancer specific survival was similar in patients with hereditary prostate cancer and controls as well as in subgroup analyses including those with early onset and those diagnosed before 1990. Prostate cancer was the cause of death in 75% of patients with hereditary prostate cancer, in contrast to 55% with prostate cancer in the Swedish population. This difference was completely explained by the earlier age at the diagnosis of hereditary prostate cancer.
Conclusions: Hereditary prostate cancer has an earlier onset than sporadic prostate cancer but this study did not indicate any other important difference in clinical characteristics or survival in patients with hereditary prostate cancer and those with sporadic prostate cancer. However, it cannot be excluded that individual hereditary prostate cancer genes may have specific biological characteristics.