Intragenic amplification and formation of extrachromosomal small circular DNA molecules from the PIP gene on chromosome 7 in primary breast carcinomas

Int J Cancer. 2002 May 20;99(3):370-7. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10368.


The PIP gene is expressed in exocrine glands and, in pathologic conditions, in breast cysts and breast cancers exhibiting apocrine features. It is localized on the long arm of chromosome 7, a region frequently alterated in mammary tumors. We previously described an abnormal restriction pattern of the PIP gene in 33% of prostate carcinomas analyzed. Here, we analyze the structure of the PIP gene in primary breast carcinomas. We report that part of the 3' end, including exon 3, intron C, two-thirds of exon 4 and a small portion of intron B, is amplified and involved in the formation of extrachromosomal spcDNA molecules in 3/14 (21.4%) breast cancers analyzed. The involvement of a well-defined intragenic region of a gene in the formation of spcDNA appears to be unprecedented. Since spcDNA has been suggested to serve as an enhancer of genetic instability, the PIP gene may be the target of genomic variability processes in breast cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apolipoproteins D
  • Apolipoproteins*
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7*
  • DNA, Circular*
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Exons
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Glycoproteins*
  • Humans
  • Introns
  • Male
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics


  • APOD protein, human
  • Apolipoproteins
  • Apolipoproteins D
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA, Circular
  • Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins