Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):1941-6. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.5.8504.


The aim of the study was to correlate the sonographic [ultrasound (US)] and color-Doppler (CFD) findings with the results of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and of pathologic staging of resected carcinomas to establish: 1) the relative importance of US features as risk factors of malignancy; and 2) a cost-effective management of nonpalpable thyroid nodules. Four hundred ninety-four consecutive patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (8-15 mm) were evaluated by US, CFD, and US-FNA. Ninety-two patients with inadequate cytology were excluded from the study. All patients with suspicious or malignant cytology underwent surgery, whereas subjects with benign cytology had clinical and US control 6 months later. Thyroid malignancies were observed in 18 of 195 (9.2%) solitary thyroid nodules and in 13 of 207 (6.3%) multinodular goiters. Cancer prevalence was similar in nodules greater or smaller than 10 mm (9.1 vs. 7.0%). Extracapsular growth (pT(4)) was present in 35.5%, and nodal involvement in 19.4% of neoplastic lesions, with no significant differences between tumors greater or smaller than 10 mm. At US cancers presented a solid hypoechoic appearance in 87% of cases, irregular or blurred margins in 77.4%, an intranodular vascular pattern in 74.2%, and microcalcifications in 29.0%. Irregular margins (RR 16.83), intranodular vascular spots (RR 14.29), and microcalcifications (RR 4.97) were independent risk factors of malignancy. FNA performed on hypoechoic nodules with at least one risk factor was able to identify 87% of the cancers at the expence of cytological evaluation of 38.4% of nonpalpable lesions. The majority of nonpalpable thyroid tumors can be identified by cytological evaluation of lesions presenting hypoechoic appearance in conjunction with one independent risk factor. Due to the nonnegligible prevalence of extracapsular growth and nodal metastasis, US-FNA should be performed on all 8-15 mm hypoechoic nodules with irregular margins, intranodular vascular spots or microcalcifications. Nonpalpable lesions of the thyroid without risk factors should be followed by means of clinical and US evaluation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biopsy, Needle / economics
  • Biopsy, Needle / methods*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging*
  • Thyroid Nodule / pathology*
  • Thyroid Nodule / surgery
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color*