Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the most common cause of long-term morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Our hypothesis was that early ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation increases the risk of BOS.
Methods: Data on 134 patients who had lung transplantation between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2000, was used for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: After lung transplantation, 115 patients (115 of 134, 86%) survived more than 3 months. In that group, 41 patients developed BOS, of which 23 had progressive disease. Univariate analysis revealed that ischemia-reperfusion injury (p = 0.017) and two or more acute rejection episodes (p = 0.032) were predictors of BOS onset, whereas ischemia-reperfusion injury (p = 0.011) and cytomegalovirus infection (p = 0.009) predicted progressive BOS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ischemia-reperfusion injury was an independent predictor for both BOS development and BOS progression. Two or more acute rejection episodes were also an independent predictor of BOS development, whereas cytomegalovirus infection was an independent predictor of progressive BOS.
Conclusions: Ischemia-reperfusion injury increases the risk of BOS after lung transplantation.