The effectiveness of pencil pushups treatment for convergence insufficiency: a pilot study

Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Apr;79(4):265-7. doi: 10.1097/00006324-200204000-00013.


Purpose: To study the effectiveness of pencil pushups treatment (PPT) for the treatment of convergence insufficiency in a clinical situation.

Methods: PPT was prescribed for use at home for 6 weeks for 25 subjects with convergence insufficiency.

Results: Twelve of the subjects returned for follow-up. Seven of 12 (58%) subjects showed a clinically significant improvement in nearpoint of convergence and positive fusional vergence, and 11 of 12 reported improvement in symptoms. Only one subject became asymptomatic.

Conclusions: PPT resulted in some improvement in both objective findings and symptoms for some subjects. Compliance with the recommended home therapy protocol was poor.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Convergence, Ocular
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / physiopathology
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / therapy*
  • Orthoptics*
  • Patient Compliance
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome