Synchronous Arabidopsis suspension cultures for analysis of cell-cycle gene activity

Plant J. 2002 Apr;30(2):203-12. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2002.01274.x.


Synchronized suspension cultures are powerful tools in plant cell-cycle studies. However, few Arabidopsis cell cultures are available, and synchrony extending over several sequential phases of the cell cycle has not been reported. Here we describe the first useful synchrony in Arabidopsis, achieved by selecting the rapidly dividing Arabidopsis cell suspensions MM1 and MM2d. Synchrony may be achieved either by removing and re-supplying sucrose to the growth media or by applying an aphidicolin block/release. Synchronization with aphidicolin produced up to 80% S-phase cells and up to 92% G2 cells, together with clear separation of different cell-cycle phases. These synchronization procedures can be used for analysis of gene expression and protein activity. We show that representatives of three CDK gene classes of Arabidopsis (CDKA, CDKB1 and CDKB2) show differential expression timing, and that three CDK inhibitor genes show strikingly different expression patterns during cell-cycle re-entry. We propose that ICK2 (KRP2) may have a specific role in this process.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anaphase / drug effects
  • Aphidicolin / pharmacology
  • Arabidopsis / cytology*
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / genetics*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Culture Media
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / genetics
  • Cyclins / genetics
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Genes, cdc*
  • Kinetics
  • Metaphase / drug effects
  • Sucrose / metabolism
  • Sucrose / pharmacology


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Culture Media
  • Cyclins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Aphidicolin
  • Sucrose
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases