Spinning molecular immunology into successful immunotherapy

Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Apr;2(4):227-38. doi: 10.1038/nri774.


Until recently, immunotherapies have been of limited success, particularly against cancer. However, recent insights into the cells, molecules and signalling pathways that regulate immune responsiveness are providing new approaches for immunotherapy. In this article, I review some of the most promising molecular and cellular targets for immunotherapy and discuss approaches that use these targets to amplify immune responses and potentially break antigen-specific tolerance. These strategies provide a blueprint for the development of successful immunotherapy over the next decade.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / genetics
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Cancer Vaccines