Ankle and knee coupling in patients with spastic diplegia: effects of gastrocnemius-soleus lengthening

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 May;84(5):736-44. doi: 10.2106/00004623-200205000-00006.


Background: Empirical observations of subjects with an equinus gait have suggested that there is coupled motion between the ankle and knee such that, during single-limb stance, the ankle moves into equinus as the knee extends. Since the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle-tendon unit spans both joints, we hypothesized that this muscle-tendon unit may be responsible for the coupling and that lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle alone would result in greater ankle dorsiflexion as well as greater knee extension in single-limb stance, effectively uncoupling these joints. The concept that gastrocnemius-soleus lengthening may promote knee extension is counter to the popular notion that crouch gait may result if the hamstrings are not lengthened concomitantly.

Methods: A retrospective review identified thirty-four subjects with specific kinematic characteristics of equinus gait, and their gait was compared with that of normal children. Of the thirty-four subjects, eleven (twenty-two limbs) subsequently underwent isolated midcalf lengthening of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles with use of a recession technique. Gait analysis including joint kinematics and joint kinetics, electromyography, and physical examination were performed to test the hypothesis.

Results: We found that, unlike the normal subjects, the patients with an equinus gait pattern had a positive correlation (r = 0.7) between ankle and knee motion during single-limb stance. As hypothesized, ankle plantar flexion occurred while the knee moved into extension during single-limb stance. Calculations of the lengths of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle-tendon units showed them to be short throughout the gait cycle (p < 0.0001). After gastrocnemius-soleus recession, peak ankle dorsiflexion (p < 0.001) and peak ankle power (p < 0.001) shifted to occur later in stance than they did in the preoperative gait cycle. Furthermore, the magnitude of peak power increased (p < 0.001) in late stance despite the added length of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle-tendon unit. The electromyographic amplitude of the gastrocnemius-soleus was reduced during loading (p < 0.02), and this finding, together with the kinetic changes, suggested that muscle tension was reduced. Changes at the knee were less pronounced but included greater knee extension at foot contact (p < 0.01). No increase in the knee flexion angle or extension moment occurred in midstance after the surgery.

Conclusions: Patients with an equinus gait pattern function with a shortened gastrocnemius-soleus muscle-tendon unit, and this results in coupled motion between the ankle and knee during single-limb stance. Lengthening, with use of a recession technique, shifted ankle power generation and dorsiflexion to a later time in stance with no tendency to increase midstance knee flexion. Knee extension did increase at foot contact, but excessive midstance knee flexion persisted and was likely due to concomitant contracture of the hamstrings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Ankle / physiopathology*
  • Ankle / surgery*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cerebral Palsy / complications
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Palsy / surgery*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electromyography
  • Female
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic / etiology
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic / physiopathology*
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Knee / physiopathology*
  • Knee / surgery*
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / surgery*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology
  • Retrospective Studies