Bacterial osmoadaptation: the role of osmolytes in bacterial stress and virulence

FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002 Mar;26(1):49-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2002.tb00598.x.


Two general strategies exist for the growth and survival of prokaryotes in environments of elevated osmolarity. The 'salt in cytoplasm' approach, which requires extensive structural modifications, is restricted mainly to members of the Halobacteriaceae. All other species have convergently evolved to cope with environments of elevated osmolarity by the accumulation of a restricted range of low molecular mass molecules, termed compatible solutes owing to their compatibility with cellular processes at high internal concentrations. Herein we review the molecular mechanisms governing the accumulation of these compounds, both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, focusing specifically on the regulation of their transport/synthesis systems and the ability of these systems to sense and respond to changes in the osmolarity of the extracellular environment. Finally, we examine the current knowledge on the role of these osmostress responsive systems in contributing to the virulence potential of a number of pathogenic bacteria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological*
  • Animals
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Bacteria / growth & development
  • Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Sodium Chloride / pharmacology*
  • Virulence
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance*


  • Sodium Chloride