The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine, a long-acting insulin analog, with NPH insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In a multicenter, open-label, randomized, 6-month study, 349 patients with TIDM, aged 5-16 years, received insulin glargine once daily or NPH insulin either once or twice daily, based on their prior treatment regimen. Although there was no significant difference between the NPH insulin and insulin glargine treatment groups with respect to baseline to endpoint change in HbA1c levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels decreased significantly more in the insulin glargine group (-1.29 mmol/l) than in the NPH insulin group (-0.68 mmol/L, p = 0.02). The percentage of symptomatic hypoglycemic events was similar between groups; however, fewer patients in the insulin glargine group reported severe hypoglycemia (23% vs 29%) and severe nocturnal hypoglycemia (13% vs 18%), although these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.22 and p = 0.19, respectively). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the insulin glargine group than in the NPH insulin group (p < 0.02). A once-daily subcutaneous dose of insulin glargine provides effective glycemic control and is well tolerated in children and adolescents with T1DM.