Background: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the modern era, the incidence and prognostic implications of acute renal failure (ARF) are unknown.
Methods and results: With a retrospective analysis of the Mayo Clinic PCI registry, we determined the incidence of, risk factors for, and prognostic implications of ARF (defined as an increase in serum creatinine [Cr] >0.5 mg/dL from baseline) after PCI. Of 7586 patients, 254 (3.3%) experienced ARF. Among patients with baseline Cr <2.0, the risk of ARF was higher among diabetic than nondiabetic patients, whereas among those with a baseline Cr >2.0, all had a significant risk of ARF. In multivariate analysis, ARF was associated with baseline serum Cr, acute myocardial infarction, shock, and volume of contrast medium administered. Twenty-two percent of patients with ARF died during the index hospitalization compared with only 1.4% of patients without ARF (P<0.0001). After adjustment, ARF remained strongly associated with death. Among hospital survivors with ARF, 1- and 5-year estimated mortality rates were 12.1% and 44.6%, respectively, much greater than the 3.7% and 14.5% mortality rates in patients without ARF (P<0.0001).
Conclusions: The overall incidence of ARF after PCI is low. Diabetic patients with baseline Cr values <2.0 mg/dL are at higher risk than nondiabetic patients, whereas all patients with a serum Cr >2.0 are at high risk for ARF. ARF was highly correlated with death during the index hospitalization and after dismissal.