Diabetic nephropathy in KK and KK-Ay mice

Exp Anim. 2002 Apr;51(2):191-6. doi: 10.1538/expanim.51.191.


KK mice and KK-Ay mice were examined for age related changes in blood and urinary biophysiological parameters. Blood hemoglobin A1c levels were significantly higher in KK-Ay and KK mice as compared to non-diabetic ddY mice. In both diabetic mice, especially KK-Ay mice, plasma insulin levels markedly increased at 2 to 4 months of age, and the urinary glucose and microalbumin levels and albumin-to-creatinine ratios increased dependent on age. Plasma thrombomodulin levels significantly increased at 2 to 4 months of age in both KK and KK-Ay mice. Mild enlargement of mesangial matrix and segmental proliferative glomerular nephritis were revealed in KK and KK-Ay mice, respectively, at 4 months of age. KK-Ay mice with insulin resistance and high urine mAlb level might be useful as models for the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / genetics
  • Animals
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / genetics*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / pathology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / urine
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Kidney Glomerulus / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains / genetics*
  • Mice, Mutant Strains / genetics*
  • Species Specificity
  • Thrombomodulin / blood


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Insulin
  • Thrombomodulin