Androgenesis in Rainbow Trout Using Cryopreserved Spermatozoa: The Effect of Processing and Biological Factors

Theriogenology. 2002 Mar 1;57(4):1229-49. doi: 10.1016/s0093-691x(02)00631-3.


In addition to producing homozygous lines for biomedical and genomic research and monosex stocks for commercial purposes, androgenesis is the biotechnology considered most promising and reliable for recovering complete nuclear genome information from cryopreserved fish cells. That is because procedures of cryopreserving spermatozoa, contrary to procedures for oocytes or entire eggs, are being well developed. Application of androgenesis in genome banking programs addresses the needs of both the aquaculture industry (safeguard for valuable strains and lines) and natural resource conservation (in vitro protection of endangered species or populations). The present study was focused on successful production of an androgenetic rainbow trout stock using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Our report constitutes the first time a full factorial analysis of processing and biological factors affecting androgenesis efficacy has been presented. Also for the first time, the survival of androgenetic individuals during 2 years of life was recorded. Remarkably high survival rates were observed in one of the two experiments-up to 42.5 +/- 2.8% of hatched larvae, 22.5 +/- 0.1% of swim-up larvae and 10.5% of androgenetic alevins 0.4 g. Mortality rates in androgenetic groups were high especially during the first 6 months. In all, 114 androgenetic individuals (0.9%) survived 2 years. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa generally did not affect androgenesis efficiency significantly, however, this effect was significantly dependent on the method of ploidization shock and on the duration of treatment. Significant interactions were revealed between the irradiation dose and the magnitude of pressure applied, and between the treatment of sperm and duration of pressure shock. Individual variability of spermatozoa donors significantly affected androgenesis efficiency regardless of their genetic (outbred or inbred) origin. Genetic source of the oocytes, contrary to spermatozoa, proved to be an important factor. Following findings of other researchers that androgenesis using cryopreserved spermatozoa is possible, we demonstrated that viable stock could be successfully established from cryopreserved nuclear genome information. Complex statistical analysis of previously developed procedures resulted in information-rich data regarding factorial interactions helpful for developing protocols in genome-restoration programs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotechnology
  • Breeding*
  • Cryopreservation*
  • DNA / isolation & purification
  • DNA Damage
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Gamma Rays
  • Male
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss / embryology
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss / genetics*
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss / physiology
  • Oocytes / chemistry
  • Oocytes / ultrastructure
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted*
  • Semen Preservation
  • Spermatozoa / physiology*
  • Spermatozoa / ultrastructure
  • Y Chromosome*


  • DNA