The pharmacological activity of two natural bombesin-like peptides, alytesin and litorin, and 25 related synthetic peptides has been compared to that of bombesin. 2 The minimum length of the amino acid chain required for the first appearance of bombesin-like effects was represented by the C-terminal heptapeptide, and the minimum length for maximal effects by the C-terminal nonapeptide. The latter possessed approximately the same activity as bombesin and may be considered a good substitute. 3 Both the tryptophan and histidine residues seemed to be essential for bombesin-like activity. 4 The C-terminal octapeptide was less active than either bombesin or the C-terminal nonapeptide and its action was more rapid in onset and less sustained. 5 Litorin apparently has an intermediate position between bombesin octapeptide and bombesin nonapeptide in the speed and duration of its effects. The relationship between structure and activity is discussed.