Pubertal gynecomastia

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;15(5):553-60. doi: 10.1515/jpem.2002.15.5.553.


Gynecomastia is a benign condition in males, characterized by proliferation of glandular elements resulting in concentric enlargement of one or both breasts. During puberty, there is often a transient relative imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, leading to gynecomastia. This condition usually resolves by age 18 years when adult androgen/estrogen ratios are achieved. Laboratory evaluation should include testosterone, estradiol, and gonadotropins; karyotype should be obtained in pubertal patients with testes volumes less than 6 ml. The mainstay in treatment of pubertal gynecomastia is still sympathetic reassurance considering the benign nature of the condition. Surgical removal of the breast glandular tissue should be considered in boys who have had persistent pubertal gynecomastia and have completed or nearly completed puberty.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Gonadotropins / blood
  • Gynecomastia* / diagnosis
  • Gynecomastia* / etiology
  • Gynecomastia* / psychology
  • Gynecomastia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Puberty*
  • Testis / pathology
  • Testosterone / blood


  • Gonadotropins
  • Testosterone
  • Estradiol